M. Guémas, A. Sellier and F. Pigeonneau, Slow viscous gravity-driven interaction between a bubble and a free surface with unequal surface tensions, PHYSICS OF FLUIDS 27, 043102 (2015) preprint
To predict how these bubble will behave is a crucial issue for glass industry. The melted glass is indeed highly viscous implying that bubbles need a large energy to rise and go through the surface.
Tracking in time the deformations of the bubbles and free shapes.
Strong sensitivity to the variation of surface tension.